The aim of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in science and technology against microbial pathogens presented at the first edition of the ICAR Conference Series (ICAR2010) held in Valladolid, Spain, in November 2010. This volume is a compilation of 86 chapters written by active researchers that offer information and experiences and afford critical insights into anti-microbe strategies in a general context marked by the threat posed by the increasing antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic microorganisms. "Anti" is here taken in a wide sense as "against cell cycle, adhesion, or communication", and when harmful for the human health (infectious diseases, chemotherapy etc.) and industry or economy (food, agriculture, water systems etc.) The book examines this interesting subject area from antimicrobial resistance (superbugs, emerging and re-emerging pathogens etc.), to the use of natural products or microbes against microbial pathogens, not forgetting antimicrobial chemistry, physics and material science. Readers will find in a single volume, up-to-date information of the current knowledge in antimicrobial research. The book is recommended for researchers from a broad range of academic disciplines that are contributing in the battle against harmful microorganisms, not only those more traditionally involved in this research area (microbiologists, biochemists, geneticists, clinicians etc.), but also experimental and theoretical/computational chemists, physicists or engineers.